Published Papers - Croft

Life Cycle Costing in Radioactive Waste Packaging: Reducing Costs Whilst Accelerating Clean-Up

Beattie C, Janicki M & Johnson M.  WM2016, 6-10 March 2016, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

In recognition of the high up-front costs and potentially long timescales to alternative approaches to help accelerate hazard reduction and reduce such costs are being deployed. When considering such the cost of alternative approaches to waste packaging strategies, it is important that the complete waste life cycle is taken into account.

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Innovative waste packaging and associated venting/hydrogen management

Chadwick C, Fisher D & Izatt C.  WM2016, 6-10 March 2016, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

The original strategy for managing intermediate level waste (ILW) was developed in the 1980s by the UK Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX), which is now the Radioactive Waste Management Limited (RWM), a wholly owned subsidiary of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The strategy involved retrieving ILW, sorting and encapsulating it in cement based grout within thin walled stainless steel containers. The containers would then be transferred to a large purpose-built shielded ILW store on site, where they would be stored until the planned final deep geological disposal facility becomes available.

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Designing packages for storage, transport and disposal of Intermediate Level Waste in the UK

Tait T & Vaughan R A.  RAMTRANS 2015.

Designers of packages for Intermediate level waste (ILW), to be supplied for use within the United Kingdom (UK), recognise the need to meet the separate regulatory requirements pertaining to on site storage, transportation and final disposal.

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Evolution of packages for storage, transport and disposal of Intermediate Level Waste in the UK

Beattie C, Janicki M C & Vaughan R A.  PATRAM 2013, 18-23 August 2013, San Francisco, USA.

The paper describes the evolution of designs of containers for the long term storage, transport and disposal of ILW in the UK destined for the UK Geological Disposal Facility (GDF).

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Safkeg-LS - Development and licensing of a small 6m replacement package

Marshall S & Vaughan R A.  PATRAM 2013, 18-23 August 2013, San Francisco, USA.

In 2007 the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) contracted with Croft to develop two Type B packages in accordance with 10CFR71 [1]. These packages were required to serve the medical, research and industrial isotope market and to replace the 6M and 20 WC DOT Spec packages in use by MURR at that time.

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An overview of the development of IP-2 ISO freight containers

Hows R P & Vaughan R A.  PATRAM 2010, 3-8 October 2010, London, UK.

This paper records the establishment within the UK of the use of IP-2 packages for Low Level Waste (LLW) based on the design features and established ISO standards for ISO Freight Containers for which Croft was the prime mover.

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IP-2 package containing plutonium contaminated slag pots

Hows R P, Marshall S H & Vaughan R A.  RAMTRANS 2009.

Croft Associates were approached by PC Richardson to carry out the licensing of an IP2 package containing Plutonium contaminated slag pots. This project provided several unique challenges for all those involved.

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Helicopter drop test of Type B packages in the UK

Farrington L M & Vaughan R A.  PATRAM 2007, 21-26 October 2007, Miami, USA.

Testing was carried out in the UK in 1986 to demonstrate the ability of two Type B packages designed to pass the 9m drop test criteria in the IAEA SS6 1985 transport regulations, to provide a high degree of containment even under an extended drop test as might result from a package being released from an aircraft in a mid air incident at high altitude.

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Thermal modelling of the Safshield 2999A package

Fry C & Vaughan R A.  PATRAM 2004, 20-24 September 2004, Berlin, Germany.

The SAFSHIELD 2999A is a general purpose container, designed by Croft Associates, for transporting small volumes of radioactive materials that require heavy shielding. It is intended for carrying materials as diverse as source capsules and accelerator targets.

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Freight containers as IP-2 packagings

Hows R P & Janicki M C.  RAMTRANS 1994.

A range of standard freight containers has been designed and manufactured to meet the needs of users and the requirements of the 1985 Edition of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material for Industrial Packages.  The development of freight containers as IP-2 Packagings (Industrial Package Type 2) is described.

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